Country and Capital names

Just for fun, I’m sometimes trying to hunt down etymologies of place names and try to translate them more or less literally into Ayeri. Here’s such a list. Be aware that it’s not terribly well-researched and authoritative, however, as my source has mostly been Wikipedia, so your mileage may vary. For good measure, the respective source for each item is linked. If there is more than one theory on the etymology of a name, I picked the one that seemed most reasonable (i.e. needing only a small number of arguments to explain), most easy to adapt, or otherwise appealing to me; if theories seemed all too insecure, contradictory, or no information could be easily found, I stuck with phonologically adapting the name into Ayeri. Again, I compiled this list just for fun and without pursuing any specific agenda, and certainly not with the intention to ridicule anyone’s country.

More countries will be added as I find time to do so. For sub-national toponyms, see the ‘toponymy’ category of blog posts.

Common name elements

For one, compare the page on place name elements. Further common elements referring to the naming of countries especially are the following, which will not be further indicated in the list below:

ComponentEtymology
-aycf. aye ‘people, crew; community; tribe’
-bi(s)cf. bayhisān, baysān ‘realm, empire’ (lit. ‘being-ruled’)
bay-cf. bayhisān, baysān ‘realm, empire’ (lit. ‘being-ruled’)
-hem/-ham/-hacf. hema- ‘to lie’
-mincf. mitan- ‘to live, to dwell’
-nera/-na/-necf. nedra- ‘to sit’
-(r)icf. Ayeri
hiro‘new’
nay‘and’
ternu‘holy, sacred’

North America (Amerika temis/Bayrami temis)

(Updated 2013-09-22)

Country, Territory/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Capital/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Antigua and Barbuda

Tado nay Piku

tado ‘old’, piku ‘bearded’
Saint John’s

Nasampangal ternu

nasan ‘mercy’ + pangal ‘god’
Bahamas

Karomprihin

karon ‘water, sea’ + prihin ‘flat, shallow’
Nassau

Nassau
Nasau
Barbados

Pikuye

piku ‘beard’ + -ye ‘PL’
Bridgetown

Bridgetown
Nekaming

nekan ‘bridge’ + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Belize

Bikanong

bika ‘mud’ + -nongnongon ‘river’
Belmopan

Bimopan

Bi-Bikanong + Mo + Pan
Canada

Minkayi

minkay ‘settlement, village’
Ottawa

Ibucan

ibut- ‘trade’ + yano ‘place’
Costa Rica

Ijamaling

ijan ‘rich’ + maling ‘shore, coast’
San Jose

Saganjyan ternu

saganya- ‘add’ + -yang ‘he’ ~ -yan ‘masc. name suffix’
Cuba

Avankabu

avan ‘soil’ + kabu ‘fertile’
Havanna

Habana
Dominica

Nanahangi

na ‘GEN’ + nahang ‘Lord’
Roseau

Siban

siban ‘reed’
Dominican Republic

Similitay Nanahang

similitay ‘republic’, na ‘GEN’ + nahang ‘Lord’
Santo Domingo

Nanahang ternu

na ‘GEN’ + nahang ‘Lord’
El Salvador

Madaya

mad- ‘rescue, save’ + -maya ‘AGT.NMLZ’
San Salvador

Madaya ternu

mad- ‘rescue, save’ + -maya ‘AGT.NMLZ’
Greenland1

Kalāli, Simildano

Kalāli ‘Kalaallit’, simil ‘land’, dano ‘green’
Nuuk

Lakay, Gahāmban

lakay ‘cape’, gahān ‘hope’ + ban ‘good’
Grenada

Luyaturay

luyan ‘stranger’ + turay ‘hill’
Saint George’s

Yetang ternu

yetang ‘farmer’
Guatemala

Mehirikāna

mehir ‘tree’ + -ikan ‘many’ + -na ‘GEN’
Guatemala City

Ayron Mehirikāna

ayron ‘city’, mehir ‘tree’ + -ikan ‘many’ + -na ‘GEN’
Haiti

Similturay

simil ‘land’ + turay ‘hill’
Port-au-Prince

Port-au-Prince
Peromaykong

perong ‘prince’ + maykong ‘harbor’
Honduras

Tasananye

tasanan ‘depth’ + -ye ‘PL’
Tegucigalpa

Desayrang

desay ‘noble’ + -rang ‘home’
Jamaica

Mihankaron

mihan ‘wood’ + karon ‘water’
Kingston

Kingston
Lanyaming

lanya ‘king’ + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Mexico

Kayamin

kayan ‘war’
Mexico City

Ayron Kayamin

ayron ‘city’, kayan ‘war’
Nicaragua

Karonikar

karon ‘water, sea’ + Nikar ‘Nicarao’
Managua

Karonya

karon ‘water’ + -ya ‘LOC’
Panama

Kanganinun

kangan ‘abundance’ + inun ‘fish’
Panama City

Kanganinun

kangan ‘abundance’ + inun ‘fish’
Puerto Rico

Ijamikong

ijan ‘rich’ + -mikongmaykong ‘harbor’
San Juan

Nasampangal ternu

nasan ‘mercy’ + pangal ‘god’
Saint Kitts and Nevis

Ninkrisyan ternu nay Kankana

nin- ‘to carry’ + kris ‘Christ’ (loaned, though cf. harisa ‘oiled’) + -yan ‘masc. name suffix’, kanka ‘snow’ + -na ‘GEN’
Basseterre

Simileyra

simil ‘land’ + eyra ‘low’
Saint Lucia

Makavay ternu

maka ‘bright’ + -vay ‘fem. name suffix’
Castries

Castries
Kastriyes
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Pisadan ternu nay Luyaturayye

pisa- ‘conquer’ + -dan ‘masc. name suffix’, luyan ‘stranger’ + turay ‘hill’ + -ye ‘PL’
Kingstown

Kingstown
Lanyaminkay

lanya ‘king’ + minkay ‘settlement, village’
Trinidad and Tobago

Kaykadisan nay Tartarihim

kay ‘three’ + kadisan ‘unity’, tartar ‘smoking pipe’ + ihim ‘herb, weed’
Port of Spain

Port of Spain
Maykong na Tantani

maykong ‘harbor’, na ‘GEN’, Tantani ‘Spain’
United States of America

Similye kadisu na Bayrami

simil ‘land’ + -ye ‘PL’, kadisu ‘united’, na ‘GEN’, bayhi ‘ruler’ + rang ‘home’ (+ mico ‘powerful’)
Washington

Tamoyaming

tamo ‘wheat’ + -yan ‘masc. name suffix’ + -ming minkay ‘settlement, village’

South America (Amerika hinang/Bayrami hinang)

(Updated 2013-09-24)

Country, Territory/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Capital/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Argentina

Ijambis

ijan ‘silver’ + -bisbaysān ‘realm, empire’
Buenos Aires

Vemban

ven ‘air’ + ban ‘good’
Bolivia

Bāysupetang

aysu ‘valley’ + petang ‘mill’
Sucre, La Paz

Sucre, La Paz
Pasono, Sempay

pasono ‘sugar’; sempay ‘peace’
Brazil

Mihantuvo

mihan ‘wood’ + tuvo ‘red’
Brasilia

Mihantuvona

mihan ‘wood’ + tuvo ‘red’ + -na ‘GEN’
Chile

CiliSantiago

Hangkurang ternu

hang- ‘hold’ + kurang ‘ankle’
Colombia

Ruhayani

ruha ‘pigeon’ + -yan ‘masc. name suffix’
Bogota

Panganibang

pangan ‘end’ + ibang ‘field’
Ecuador

Raganterpeng

ragan ‘line’ + terpeng ‘middle, center’
Quito

Kito
Guyana

Karonikan

karon ‘water’ + -ikan ‘many, much’
Georgetown

Yetangkay

yetang ‘farmer’ + -kay ← minkay ‘settlement, village’
Paraguay

Nongonikan

nongon ‘river’ + -ikan ‘many’
Asuncion

Asunción
Lingan

lingan ‘ascension’
Peru

PeruLima

Narayaman

nara- ‘speak, talk’ + -yam ‘PTCP’ + -an ‘NMLZ’
Suriname

SurineriParamaribo

Paramaribo
Paramaribo
Uruguay

UruvayMontevideo

Silvarivan

silv- ‘see’ + rivan ‘mountain’
Venezuela

Dikunimin

dikun ‘passion’
Caracas

Karakas

Asia (Asiya)

(Updated 2016-03-07)

Country, Territory/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Capital/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Afghanestan

AvagambisKabul

Kabul
Armenia

HaykisYerevan

Vitran

vitran ‘capture’
Azerbaijan

Tupoyternubis

tupoy ‘fire’ + ternu ‘holy’
Baku

Pinay

pinay ‘windy’
Bahrain

Karosam

karon ‘sea’ + sam ‘two’
Manama

Yanibān

yano ‘place’ + ‘nibān’ rest
Bangladesh

BanglabisDhaka

Daka
Bhutan

Bagambis

bagam ‘lizard’
Thimpu

ཐིམ་ཕུ་ (Thimphu)
Timpu
Brunei

Karon

karon ‘sea, ocean’
Bandar Seri Begawan

Riman Pangaltiga

riman ‘city’ + pangal ’god’ + tiga ‘honorable’
Cambodia

KambojaPhnom Penh

Penturay

Pen(h) + turay ‘hill’
China

Similterpeng

simil ‘country’ + terpeng ‘middle, central’
Beijing

Temivisam

temis ‘north’ + visam ‘main …; capital’
Cyprus

KipriNicosia

Levakrang
Georgia

KartubisTbilisi

Yanomato

yano ‘place’ + mato ‘warm’
India

Tamisuyani

tamisu ‘esteemed, cherished’ + -yan ‘masc. name suffix’
New Delhi

Dili hiro
Indonesia

Tadangliprān

tadang ‘island’ + lito ‘border’ + prida- ‘shake’ + -an ‘NOMZ’
Jakarta

Sikatikan

sikatan ‘victory’ + ikan ‘complete, whole’
Iran

Desayi

desay ‘noble’
Tehran

Terān
Iraq

IrākiBaghdad

Bagadan
Israel

Sikampangali

sikatan ‘victory’ + pangal ‘God‘
Jerusalem

Sempaming

sempay ‘peace’ + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Japan

Kohasil

kohan ‘sunrise’
Tokyo

Kemavisam

keman ‘eastern’ + visam ‘main …; capital’
Jordan

Apandaya

apand- ‘descend’ + -maya ‘AGT.NMLZ’
Amman

Amān
Kazakhstan

Abagibis

Shortened from abagisaya ‘nomad’
Astana

Visam

visam ‘main’
Korea (North)

JosenPyongyang

Prihisil

prihin ‘flat’
Korea (South)

HansilSeoul

Visam

visam ‘main …; capital’
Kuwait

KuvayKuwait City

Ayron Kuvay

ayron ‘city’ + Kuwayt
Kyrgyzstan

Yolambis

yolan ‘forty’
Bishkek
Бишкек (Bishkek)
Biskeka
Laos

LausilVientiane

Mihanverya

mihan ‘wood’ + verya ‘fragrant’
Lebanon

Makāni

maka ‘white’ + -an ‘NMLZ’
Beirut

Hasang

hasang ‘source, well’
Malaysia

MalaysilKuala Lumpur, Putrajaya

Bikametan, Perongsikatu

bika ‘mud’ + -kametankametidān ‘confluence’; perong ‘prince’ + sikatu ‘victorious’
Maldives

Tipaldangi

tipal ‘necklace’ + -dangtadang ‘island’
Malé

Tipaldang

tipal ‘necklace’ + -dangtadang ‘island’
Mongolia

Tenday

tendo ‘brave, courageous’
Ulan Bator

Hadaytuvo

haday ‘hero’ + tuvo ‘red’
Myanmar (Burma)

BamayNaypyidaw

Lanyamitang

lanya ‘king’ + -mitang ‘residence’
Nepal

NepālKathmandu

Pacamihan

pacam ‘shelter’ + mihan ‘wooden’
Oman

UmānMuscat

Yasikan

yano ‘place’ + sikan ‘anchor’
Pakistan

Apitubis

apitu ‘pure’
Lahore

Lopelang

Loh + pelang ‘fort’
Palestine2

PelestiJerusalem

Ternuan

ternu ‘holy’ + -an ‘NMLZ’
Philippines

Peledangi

pel ‘horse’ + ledan ‘friend’ + -dangitadangye ‘islands’
Manila

Yanila

yano ‘place’ + Nila
Qatar

KatarDoha

Siray

siray ‘bay’
Russia

Kuhayi

Moscow

Maskua
Saudi Arabia

Baysān Saudi

baysān ‘empire, realm’ + Saud
Riyadh

Mondo

mondo ‘garden’
Singapore

Latureng

latun ‘lion’ + -arengayron ‘city’
Singapore

Latureng

latun ‘lion’ + -arengayron ‘city’
Sri Lanka

Tadananang

tadang ‘island’ + nanang ‘magnificient, great’
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo

Sikatananang, Maykong

sikatan ‘victory’ + nanang ‘great’; maykong ‘harbor’
Syria

AsuriDamascus

Dimaska
Tajikistan

TajibisDushanbe

Samabahis

saman ‘second’ + bahis ‘day’
Thailand

Keynasil

keynam ‘people’
Bangkok

Pangareng

pangal ‘god, deity’ + -arengayron ‘city’
Timor-Leste

Keman-keman

keman ‘east’
Dili

Díli
Dili
Turkey

TurkiAnkara

Sikan

sikan ‘weight, anchor’
Turkmenistan

TurkibisAshgabat

Ilisāreng

ilisān ‘devotion’ + -arengayron ‘city’
United Arab Emirates

Nosāyi

nosāya ‘commander, chief’
Abu Dhabi

Badanikam

badan ‘father’ + ikam ‘deer’
Uzbekistan

Dapalbis

dapal ‘chief’
Tashkent

Yelangreng

yelang ‘stone’ + -arengayron ‘city’
Vietnam

Yehinang

Việt/Yuè + hinang ‘southern’
Hanoi

Mesanong

mesam- ‘divide’ + nongon ‘river’
Yemen

Torayan

torayan ‘blessing’
Sana’a

Pelamban

pelang ‘fort, fortress’ + ban ‘good’

Europe (Eropa/Apani)

(Updated 2016-05-29)

Country, Territory/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Capital/

Native name
Translation/

Ayeri Etymology
Albania

Bihani

bihan- ‘understand’
Tirana

Tiranë
Tirana
Andorra

Vinim

vinim ‘forest’
Andorra la Vella

Vinim Tado

vinim ‘forest’, tado ‘old’
Armenia

HaykisYerevan

Vitran

vitran ‘capture’
Austria

Baysānkeman

baysān ‘realm’ + keman ‘eastern’
Vienna

Vinang
Belarus

Kuhayi Maka

kuh- ‘row’, maka ‘white’
Minsk

Miming

Měn + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Belgium

Kritānga

krito ‘angry’
Brussels

Avararāng

avararan ‘wetland’ + rang ‘home’
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Metida nay Haginasil

metida- ‘flow’, haginang ‘duke, captain’ + -silsimil ‘land’
Sarajevo

Mitan

mitan ‘palace’
Bulgaria

Gababi

gaba- ‘mix’
Sofia

Ditavāya

ditavay ‘wisdom’ + -vaya ‘F.AGT.NOMZ’
Croatia

KrovatiZagreb

Pangaling

pang ‘behind’ + maling ‘shore’
Cyprus

KipriNicosia

Levakrang
Czech Republic

CehiPrague

Lukay

lukay ‘ford’
Denmark

Litoprihi

lito ‘border’ + prihin ‘flat, plain’
Copenhagen

Butaymikong

ibutaya ‘trader’ + maykong ‘harbor’
Estonia

Kemani

keman ‘east’
Tallinn

Talin
Faroe Islands3

Tadamavi

tadang ‘island’ + mavi ‘sheep’
Torshavn

Rugomaykong

rugon ‘thunder’ + maykong ‘harbor’
Finland

Simi

simil ‘land’
Helsinki

Hesikarang

karang ‘rapids’
France

Kahani

kahan ‘spear’
Paris

Pari
Georgia

KartubisTbilisi

Yanomato

yano ‘place’ + mato ‘warm’
Germany

Keynami

keynam ‘people’
Berlin

Vangareng

vangan ‘swamp’
Greece

HelasAthens

Atina
Holy See

Nisahaming

nisahan ‘prophecy’ + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Vatican City

Nisahaming

nisahan ‘prophecy’ + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Hungary

Majari

Majar
Budapest

Karonhelan

karon ‘water’ + helan ‘oven’
Iceland

Similkarsang

simil ‘land’ + karsang ‘ice’
Reykjavik

Runusay

runu ‘smoke’ + -saysiray ‘bay’
Ireland

Éire
ĪriDublin

Duhalukay

duhas ‘hurdle’ + lukay ‘ford’
Italy

Labani

laban ‘calf’
Rome

Ruminkay

Roma + minkay ‘settlement, village’
Kosovo2

Vipibang

vipin ‘bird’ + ibang ‘field’
Pristina

Pristina
Latvia

Nujiray

nuj- ‘pour’ + iray ‘high’
Riga

Penung

penung ‘barn’
Liechtenstein

Yelamaka

yelang ‘stone’ + maka ‘white, bright’
Vaduz

Karonekan

karon ‘water’ + nekan ‘bridge’
Lithuania

Nujireng

nuj- ‘pour’ + eyreng ‘lower’
Vilnius

Sintokivo

sinto ‘wave’ + kivo ‘small’
Luxembourg

Kivareng

kivo ‘small’ + -arengayron ‘castle’
Luxembourg

Kivareng

kivo ‘small’ + -arengayron ‘castle’
Macedonia

Nakeri

nake ‘tall’
Skopje

Sekopya
Malta

Tadampaso

tadang ‘island’ + paso ‘sweet’
Valletta

Valeta
Moldova

MoldovaChişinău

Hirobay

hiro ‘new’ + -baybayo ‘spring’
Monaco

Mitankebay

mitan ‘dwell’ + kebay ‘alone’
Monaco

Mitankebay

mitan ‘dwell’ + kebay ‘alone’
Montenegro

Rivamakārya

rivan ‘mountain’ + makārya ‘black’
Podgorica

Eyranturay

eyran ‘under, below’ + turay ‘hill’
Netherlands

Similye eyra

simil ‘land’ + -ye ‘PL’, eyra ‘low’
Amsterdam, The Hague

Amsukray, Turay(nahang)

sukran ‘dam’; turay ‘hill’ (+ nahang ‘lord’)
Norway

Sasāntemis

sasān ‘way’ + temis ‘north’
Oslo

Pramitray

prami ‘meadow’ + -tray < turay ‘hill’
Poland

Baybang

ibang ‘field’
Warsaw

Varsava
Portugal

Vemaykong

veno ‘beautiful’ + maykong ‘harbor’
Lisbon

Pakamaykong

paka ‘safe’ + maykong ‘harbor’
Romania

Rumayi

Rumay ‘Roman people’
Bucharest

Palay

palay ‘joy’
Russia

Kuhayi

kuh- ‘row’
Moscow

Maskua
San Marino

Karonyan ternu

karon ‘water, sea’ + -yan ‘masc. name suffix’
San Marino

Karonyan ternu

karon ‘water, sea’ + -yan ‘masc. name suffix’
Serbia

Kamay

kamo ‘same’
Belgrade

Makayron

maka ‘white’ + ayron ‘city’
Slovakia

Narkamin

nara- ‘speak’ + kamo ‘same’
Bratislava

Presal
Slovenia

Narakamo

nara- ‘speak’ + kamo ‘same’
Ljubljana

Caysu

caisu ‘beloved’
Spain

Tantani

tantang ‘rabbit’
Madrid

Lukibang

lukay ‘ford’ + ibang ‘field’
Sweden

Sitangi

sitang ‘self, own’
Stockholm

Mihantang

mihan ‘wood’ + -tangtadang ‘island’
Switzerland

SuyminBerne

Sepraming

sepran ‘slit, crack, cleft’ + -mingminkay ‘settlement, village’
Turkey

TurkiAnkara

Sikan

sikan ‘weight, anchor’
Ukraine

Similitanye

similitan ‘borderland’
Kyiv

Cīna

Kyi + -na ‘GEN’
United Kingdom

United Kingdom
Lagasim Kadisu

lagasim ‘kingdom’, kadisu ‘united’
London

London
  1. Autonomous constituent part of the Kingdom of Denmark.
  2. Status as an independent nation disputed.
  3. Not strictly an independent nation, but still notable enough to be included here.
  4. Status as an independent nation disputed.